Plant Nutrients Fill-in

Excerpted from Idaho Master Gardeners Program Handbook Chapter 5

Essential Nutrients

  1. Plants obtain from the soil ______ of the _______ elements essential to their growth.
  2. The other three elements — carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen — come from the _________ and from the _________.

Macronutrients - ___________ quantities are required

  1. Primary macronutrients
    • ______________ (N) generally is for leaf or vegetative growth
    • ______________ (P or in fertilizers, designated as phosphate, P2O5) for root and fruit production
    • ______________ (K or in fertilizers, designated as potash, K2O) general plant health, cold hardiness, disease resistance, and general durability.
  2. Secondary macronutrients: ______________ (Ca),   ______________ (Mg),   ______________ (S),  

Micronutrients - ______________ quantities are required

  1. Deficiencies in these nutrients are ______________ common.
  2. ______________ is a significant factor in micronutrient availability
  3. In low pH ______________ can be a problem for: Boron (B), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Molybdenum (Mo), Zinc (Zn), Chlorine (Cl), Nickel (Ni)

General Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms

  1. Symptoms are an indication of ______________ starvation.
  2. Plant production limited ______________ symptoms show !
  3. Deficiency difficult to distinguish ______________ and may ______________ disease or insect problems.
  4. Categorized whether or not the nutrient is ______________ in the plant.
    1. Translocated Nutrients
      1. Symptoms in the ______________ or ______________ leaves because the nutrients are mobile and move to new, growing parts of the plant.
      2. ______________ (N) - Plants are light green in color; older leaves yellow starting at the leaf tips.
      3. ______________ (P) - Plants are small and dark green with purple coloration.
      4. ______________ (K) - Yellow or brown discoloration appears along the outer margins of the older leaves.
      5. ______________ (Mg) - Yellow discoloration occurs between the leaf veins. Reddish-purple discoloration extends from the outer edge of the leaf inward.
    2. Non-Translocated Nutrients
      1. ______________ bud dies
        1. Calcium (Ca) - Primary leaf emergence is delayed, and terminal buds deteriorate.
        2. Boron (B) - Leaves near the growing point (meristem) are yellow, and buds look like white or light brown dead tissue.
      2. ______________ bud remains alive
        1. Sulfur (S) - The whole leaf turns pale green to yellow starting with the younger leaves.
        2. Zinc (Zn) - Distinctive yellowing appears between the leaf veins; some plants show a broad band of discoloration on each side of the midrib. The plant is stunted and has short internodes.
        3. Iron (Fe) - Leaves are pale yellow or white between leaf veins.
        4. Manganese (Mn) - Leaves are yellowish gray or reddish gray with green veins.
        5. Copper (Cu) - Young leaves are pale yellow and/or are wilted or withered; seed heads may not form.
        6. Chlorine (Cl) - Upper leaves wilt then yellow.
        7. Molybdenum (Mo) - Young leaves wilt and die along the margins; older leaves yellow due to their inhibited ability to utilize N.