Horticulture Final Study Guide 2008

  1. Describe and compare the three basic organs of plants (roots, stems, leaves). Explain how these basic organs are interdependent.
  2. Distinguish between plant growth and plant development.
  3. Distinguish between annual, biennial, and perennial plants.
  4. Describe meristem tissues including apical and lateral meristems.
  5. Explain the phenomenon of apical dominance.
  6. Explain advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual propagation.
  7. From a diagram or specimen, identify the following structures of a seed and recall a function for each: seed, seed coat, radicle, endosperm, embryo, epicotyl, cotyledons, hypocotyl, plumule, monocot, dicot
  8. Explain how a monocot and dicot seed differ.
  9. What are the requirements for germination.
  10. Explain how seed dormancy can be advantageous to a plant.
  11. Describe some conditions for breaking dormancy.
  12. How do you reduce the risk of damping-off diseases?
  13. Demonstrate competence handling seeds, seedlings and cuttings.
  14. Explain the processes of cuttings, layering, division and grafting.
  15. Understand the importance of cambium layers in grafting.
  16. Distinguish between macronutrient and micronutrient.
  17. Explain how a nutrient's role and mobility determine the symptoms of a mineral deficiency.
  18. Explain how soil is formed.
  19. Explain what determines the texture of topsoil and list the type of soil particles from coarsest to smallest.
  20. Explain how humus contributes to the texture and composition of soil.


  1. roots, stems, leaves, photosynthesis, transpiration, guard cells
  2. leaf, petiole, blade, stipule, margin, opposite, alternate, needles
  3. root, root cap, root hair, tap root, fibrous root
  4. stem, node, internode, leaf scar, terminal bud, axial bud, meristem
  5. perennial, biennial, annual, woody, herbaceous
  6. soil, organic, inorganic, topography, soil profile, soil horizon, soil texture, clay, silt, sand, loam, humus, macronutrient, micronutrient, pH