Plant Environment Factors (fill-in)

Derived from the Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook: Chapter 2 Intro to Horticulture & Plant Physiology

  1. Horticulture defined: "the ________________________________ of growing fruits, vegetables, and flowers."
  2. Climate in Horticulture
    1. Macroclimate: "the long-term _______________________ of a large geographical area"
    2. Microclimate: your yard may have several _______________________!
      1. Low areas can collect _______________________.
      2. Slopes can be _______________________, esp south facing
      3. North slopes are _______________________.
      4. _______________________ of hills warmer.
      5. Houses, fences, sidewalks _______________________.
      6. Bodies of water _______________________.
      7. Elevation results in lower temperatures. _______________________
      8. Raised beds ______________________________________________.
      9. Large plants create ______________________________________________.
      10. Sandy soils _______________________ than clay.
  3. Role of Light in Horticulture
    1. Light Quality
      1. Various parts of the spectrum affect plants.
      2. _______________________ lights emit too much infrared.
      3. Blue encourages _______________________ growth. Fluorescent works for seedlings.
      4. _______________________ plants like more red wavelengths.
    2. Light Intensity:
      1. _______________________ at noon in summer = 12,000 foot-candles
      2. _______________________ in winter here = 1000 - 5000 foot-candles
      3. Well-lit house = 50 - 300 foot-candles.
      4. Insufficient light results in _______________________.
    3. Light Duration
      1. Flowering response controlled by length of uninterrupted _______________________!
      2. Long-day plants: _______________________ nights. Examples: _______________________, spinach
      3. Short-day plants: _______________________ nights. Examples: Christmas cactus, poinsettia, _______________________
      4. Day-neutral plants
  4. Role of Temperature in Horticulture
    1. "Temperature is the _______________________ that, more than any other, determines the kinds of plants that will grow in an area."
    2. "Photosynthesis, _______________________, and respiration increase with _______________________ temperature."
    3. "Each plant type has an ______________________________________________ needed for growth."
    4. "Some plants prefer cooler nights or days, whereas others prefer warmer nights or days.
    5. _______________________ crops examples: sweet peas, pansies, garden peas, onions, carrots, potatoes, lettuce, cabbage, and broccoli.
      • Seeds of cool-season crops will germinate at a soil temperature of just _______ .
    6. _______________________ crops examples: sweet corn, tomatoes, peppers, melons, zinnias, and marigolds.
      • Seeds of warm-season crops require a soil temperature of _______________________ to germinate
    7. High Temperatures
      1. Plants tend to prefer _______________________ , but note the actual temperature depends on the nature of the plant.
      2. "Most temperate zone perennials need a _______________________ to overcome their physiological dormancy, or _______________________ ..."
      3. Plant pests and diseases tend to _______________________ warmer temperatures.
    8. Low Temperatures
      1. _______________________ can occur from extended cool temperatures or early summer heat. Food crops are often rendered _______________________.
      2. _______________________ of perennials (_______________________) is assisted by developing cold, short days and freezing.
      3. Winter damage to plants is increased by _______________________ in their tissues or the soil. Frozen soil seems as a _______________________.
      4. Frost _______________________ can damage young plant roots.
      5. _______________________ damage transplants and opened buds.
    9. Temperature Modification
      1. Modifying high temps can be done with shading to _______________________.
      2. Modifying low temps
        1. Plastic or fabric _______________________ will trap the ground's heat giving you a 2° to 6°F gain. _______________________ are more permanent.
        2. _______________________ is a protective cover placed on the ground around plants. Organic (_______________________) or inorganic materials can be used. Mulching will protect the _______________________.
        3. Heaters and sprinklers are used in commercial operations.