Plant Structure and Function Questions

After reading the Kew B3 Structures sheet and Idaho Master Gardener Program Handbook Chapter 3 Basic Botany, answer these questions:


  1. What is the primary function of the leaf?
  2. Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis.
  3. Compare and contrast respiration and photosynthesis.
  4. What are two functions of transpiration?
  5. Where does transpiration get its water?
  6. Drawing: Sketch a leaf and stem showing leaf, petiole, blade and stipule.
  7. Drawing: Sketch the following pattern of leaf attachments: alternate, opposite, whorled.
  8. Drawing: Get a leaf from outside. Sketch the leaf, then use the Figure 2 Terminology of Leaf Characteristics in Chapter 3 Basic Botany to describe the leaf and label your drawing. You will have five descriptors for the leaf.


  1. What are the two primary functions of the stem?
  2. What three structures might you find at a node?
  3. Describe the stem's vascular system.
  4. Compare and contrast xylem and phloem.
  5. Why is a woody dicot's vascular system described as continuous?
  6. Describe the bundles of a monocot stem's vascular system.
  7. Do you think that a leaf might have vascular bundles? Explain your answer.
  8. Drawing: Sketch and label a stem with these features: axial bud, internode, leaf scar, leaf, node, terminal bud. Name the plant.
  9. Drawing: Using a microscope, draw and label a cross-sectional view of a dicot and monocot stem. Name the plants, whether monocot or dicot and identify the vascular bundles. Include a detail of a vascular bundle with the phloem and xylem labeled.


  1. What are the three primary functions of the roots?
  2. What percentage of a plant is contained in the roots?
  3. Describe the two root systems.
  4. Explain transplant shock.
  5. Drawing: Sketch a root systems with these features: root, root cap, root hairs.

Meristems Questions

  1. Define a bud.
  2. Buds may be described by their location and by their 'fate'. Name and describe the types of buds.
  3. Explain what we mean when we say meristem is capable of differentiation.
  4. Contrast the shoot and root meristems.
  5. Describe two lateral meristems external arrow.
  6. Why are lateral meristems needed by the plant?
  7. Compare and contrast apical meristem and intercalary meristem.
  8. Why is intercalary meristem a good adaptation for plants eaten by animals?
  9. Why are the trunks of some trees protected from rabbits by fencing?