Genetics Vocabulary

Gene
A discrete unit of hereditary information encoded in DNA.
Genome
Total set of a cell's DNA.
Chromosome
Thread-like association of DNA and proteins in a cell's nucleus.
True-breeding (pure-bred)
Self-fertilizing offspring's traits are identical to the parents.
Hybrid
An organism that has received different genetic information from its parents.
Trait
An inheritable characteristic.
Genotype
Genetic makeup of an organism.
Phenotype
The traits expressed in an organism.
Parent generation (P)
True-breeding organisms used in breeding experiments.
F1 generation
First generation of offspring from a cross of true-breeding parents. The F1 generation are hybrids.
F2 generation
Offspring of the F1 generation.
Alleles
Different versions of a gene for the same trait.
Dominant trait
The allele (form) expressed when two alleles are present for the same trait.
Recessive trait
The allele NOT expressed when two alleles are present for the same trait.
Heterozygous
Having the different alleles for a trait.
Homozygous
Having the same alleles for a trait.
Somatic cell
A body cell having both sets of genes (diploid).
Gamete
A sex cell having one set of genes (haploid), either an egg or sperm.