Meiosis Question Answers

  1. Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.
    • Both are eukaryotic cell divisions.
    • Most cells undergo mitosis which results in two daughter cells of diploid chromosome number.
    • Meiosis only happens in gamete production and results in four haploid sex cells.
  2. Describe the three forms of genetic variation that arise through meiosis.
    • Crossing over, in which homologous chromosomes intertwine and can exchange segments of the chromosomes.
    • In independent assortment, homologous chromosomes separate into the daughter cells independently of each other. The father's chromosomes do not move as a fixed block.
    • All the combinations of gametes for both the male and female can generate trillions of combinations through their random fertilization.
  3. Describe two chromosome abnormalities that can arise during meiosis.
    • Down's syndrome results from three of chromosome 21 and produces unusual facial features and mental retardation.
    • Turner's syndrome comes from a single X chromosome, produces sterility and poor secondary sexual development.
    • Klinefelter syndrome results from an XXY condition and produces sterility and some feminine characteristics.
  4. Describe what a karyotype is and how it could be used to identify the chromosome abnormalities described above.
    • A karyotype is a micrograph of chromosomes ordered by chromosome size from largest to smallest.
    • Differences in number or shape of the chromosomes allow identification of abnormalities.