Sedimentary Rocks Vocabulary

alluvial
Related to streams.
breccia
Sedimentary rock with angular fragments.
chemical rocks
Sedimentary rocks formed by precipitation.
chert
Hard rocks made of microcrystalline silica. Examples are flint, jasper and agate.
clastic rocks
Sedimentary rock texture formed of broken rock fragments.
coal
Highly-altered organic matter compressed into a sedimentary rock.
compaction
Process of over-lying layers pressing sediments together, reducing the pore space.
cementation
Precipitates from water solutions bind detritus together. The most important lithification process.
conglomerates
Sedimentary rock formed of rounded, gravel-sized particles.
coquina
Biochemical limestone of poorly cemented shells and shell fragments.
coral reef
Massive calcite-rich structures built by small marine animals.
deltas
Sediment accumulation formed where a stream enters a lake or ocean.
detritus
Mineral and rock fragments described by size: clay, silt, sand, gravel.
deposition
Process of sediments being laid down in a new location.
erosion
Removal of material by wind, water, ice.
glacier
Thick mass of flowing ice.
limestone
Sedimentary rock composed of calcite (CaCO3) deposited by organic or biochemical means. Most abundant sedimentary rock.
lithification
The process of cementing and compaction that converts sediments into rock.
playa
Flat, undrained desert basin.
sandstone
Sedimentary rock composed of sand.
shale
Fine grained sedimentary rock composed of silt or clay particles.
sorting
The degree of similarity of particle sizes.
weathering
Disintegration and decomposition of rock.