Minerals and Rocks Vocabulary (short)

cleavage
Some minerals will break along lines of weakness according to the chemical bonds that make up the mineral leaving flat surfaces of varying smoothness.
color
Wavelength(s) of light reflected, refracted or transmitted from a material.
crystal
The external form that a mineral has reflecting the orderly internal arrangement of its atoms.
density
Mass per unit volume.
deposition
When sediments are laid down in a new location.
erosion
Removal and transportation of weathered materials.
fracture
This is the way some minerals break along irregular surfaces.
igneous
An igneous rock forms from the cooling and crystallization of liquid rock.
lithification
Lithification is when sediments turn to hard rock by being compacted by the weight of more sediment and cemented by minerals.
luster
The appearance of the light reflected from the mineral's surface.
metamorphic
Rocks changed from their parent rocks by heat and pressure.
mineral
A naturally occurring, inorganic solid with crystalline form, and specific chemical composition.
ore
Rock or mineral containing a material valuable to humans.
rock
A rock is an aggregate of one or more minerals.
sedimentary
Rocks formed at the Earth's surface by the hydrological system. The origin of a sedimentary rock involves weathering, erosion, deposition and lithification.
streak
Color of a powered mineral.
topography
The Earth's surface contour including slope, elevation and aspect.
uplift
Process where rocks are exposed to weathering and erosion.
weathering
The breaking down of pre-existing rocks at the Earth's surface by chemical and mechanical action.