Earth Science Practice Final
- What is a supernova?
- The heavy elements in the solar system originally came from ______ .
- What force of nature is responsible for the formation of the solar system?
- What became of the solar nebula material left over from the sun's formation?
- About what was Theia's size?
- How long ago did Theia hit the Earth?
- What are the three results of Theia's impact on Earth?
- The Earth had heavy elements as did Theia. What became of those heavy elements in the Earth/ Moon system after the collision?
- What is the age of the Earth?
- What is a mineral? (Remember there are four parts to this)
- Describe the nine physical mineral properties. Be ready to use properties.
- Why isn't color a reliable identifier of mineral?
- What determines the hardness of a mineral?
- Contrast color and streak.
- What could cause one piece of quartz to be milky colored and another to be pink?
Rock Cycle, Igneous & Metamorphic Rocks with Volcanoes:
- An aggregate of two or more minerals is called a ____.
- Compare and contrast mineral, rock and ore.
- Draw and label the rock cycle.
- Igneous rocks are classified by their _____ and ______.
- Igneous rocks that cooled slowly underground have ______ crystals.
- The color of an igneous rock reflects its ______.
- Igneous rocks that have mostly dark minerals are found ______.
- Complete the table of volcano characteristics:
||Name an example
- If magma has a high silica and high water content then it is associated with ______ eruptive violence.
- Which of these sample rocks are aphanitic, phaneritic, felsic, mafic?
- Explain what agents (forces) cause metamorphism.
- Explain how "high grade" and "low grade" metamorphic rocks differ.
- Compare and contrast the two main types (based on location) of metamorphism.
- What is the value of index minerals?
- Describe the two types of sedimentary rock.
- Clastic rocks are made of rock and mineral fragments. List the three categories of those fragments in order from the largest to the smallest fragment sizes.
- What is a chemical precipitate?
- Describe an effect of industrialized human society that has increased chemical weathering.
- Describe the agents of erosion.
- Sediments from floods are often not well sorted. Explain why that is.
- List the two processes of lithification.
- How is lithification different from freezing?
- Why are sedimentary rocks overly represented on the continents?
- Define earthquakes.
- Compare and contrast earthquake intensity and earthquake magnitude (measurement units and tools).
- Interpret the Richter scale and indicate the numbers associated with weak to strong earthquakes.
- Use earthquake data and a travel time graphs to locate the epicenter of an earthquake.
- Use earthquake data to determine the magnitude of an earthquake.
- Differentiate between focus and epicenter.
- Differentiate between P-, S-, and surface waves.
- Differentiate between various types of faults.
- Contrast tension, compression, and shearing forces in the Earth and relate each to fault movement.
- Explain how awareness is the key to earthquake safety.
- Describe what governments and citizens should be doing to prepare for a large quake.
- Your notes state that "Each layer of the Earth can be characterized by its distinctive composition and physical properties." Describe the physical properties.
- What is meant by composition properties?
- Which layer is capable of flow?
- Which layer is a solid sphere?
- If the inner core is hot enough to melt, why is it still a solid?
- What layer on the Earth is composed mostly of light elements?
- What is the composition of the inner core?
- Why did the elements of the separate into layers?
- Describe the structure of the Earth.
- What characteristic of transverse waves assisted geophysicists in determining the Earth's internal structure?
- Define the lithosphere and asthenosphere.
- Define the crust and mantle.
- Why do we need these two different ways (lithosphere/ asthenosphere and crust/ mantle) to describe essentially the same part of the Earth?
- Describe the theory of continental drift.
- Describe problems Wegener had getting his ideas accepted.
- Describe the three categories of evidence Wegener used to support his theory of continental drift.
- What is a fossil?
- What WWII technological advance allowed the discovery of the mid-ocean ridges?
- Explain why the sea floor has been described as a conveyor belt.
- Name pieces of evidence Hess used to support his theory of sea floor spreading.