Earth 1st Quarter Test Part 1 KEY

  1. Seasons (ES2A) Explain and diagram how the Earth's orbit around the sun induces the seasons. Draw and label a diagram of the Earth's orbit around the sun during the year. Be sure to include these labels: December solstice, June solstice, September equinox, March equinox and the Earth's polar axis. 

  2. Topography (ES2B) Explain the effects of topography on climate and climate patterns.
    1. Large bodies of water might be described as heat sponges. Contrast how that would affect the climates of Oak Harbor and Spokane. Focus on thermal energy and its role in climate.  
    2. Sketch a parcel of air as it moves across the state from the Pacific Ocean to Oak Harbor. At each stage, diagram and label your sketch to include what is happening to the air pressure, air temperature, air moisture and ground precipitation: 
  3. Resources (ES2D) Name two Earth materials, describe their uses, and where they are found in WA state. 
      • Name:
      • Use:
      • Location:
      • Name:
      • Use:
      • Location:
  4. Reaction Rates (PS2I) I can explain the role of temperature and pressure in mineral and rock formation.
    1. What does crystal size tell you about the cooling history of an igneous rock?  

    2. The "index" minerals in metamorphic rocks informs us of the rock's
      a. original composition c. extent of metamorphism
      b. extrusive or intrusive formation d. lithification zone.
  5. Systems (SYSB) I can explain the rock cycle system and its subsystems.
    1. A rock is:
      a. an organic solid found on Earth. c. an aggregate of one or more minerals.
      b. something we can all live without. d. formed from cooling magma.
      blank rock cycle
    2. Complete the list below using this rock cycle diagram.
      1. lithification
      2. uplift (WED)
      3. uplift (WED)
      4. sed rock
      5. metamorphic rock
      6. igneous rock
      7. cooling
      8. heat & pressure
      9. uplift (WED)
  6. Systems (SYSB) Igneous subsystems:
    1. You can distinguish an igneous rock because as it cools it forms interlocking crystals.
    2. Igneous rocks are classified by their
      a. minerals and color c. texture and composition
      b. color and decomposition d. environment and texture
    3. In a pluton such as a batholith the most likely igneous rock would be
      a. gnomestone c. gneiss
      b. garnet d. granite
    4. Complete the table showing the effects of magma composition:
      Characteristics High silica & water magma Low silica & water magma
      Magma Viscosity  
      Eruptive violence  
      Mafic or felsic  
      Type of volcano  
  7. Systems (SYSB) Sedimentary subsystem:
    1. Sedimentary rock are of two types, made of either:
      a. rock fragments or chemical precipitates. c. gravel or sands.
      b. rock fragments or organics. d. precipitates or solutions.
    2. The three steps to form sediments:
      a. weathering, erosion, deposition c. cooling, crystallization, uplift
      b. mineralization, heat, remineralization. d. weathering, deposition, compaction
    3. The two steps of lithification
      a. uplift & lithification c. crystallization & uplift
      b. heat & pressure d. compaction & cementing
    4. Complete the table below for two sedimentary rock environments.
      Environment Agents of transportation Sediments Rock

  8. Systems (SYSB) Metamorphic subsystem:
    1. Which of these is NOT a change that occurs during metamorphism.
      a. recrystallization of existing minerals c. changes in crystal orientation
      b. changes of element complement d. changes in mineral complement
    2. If a metamorphic rock is more metamorphosed that rock is described as
      a. low grade c. high grade
      b. high class d. not gneiss
    3. Foliation is used to distinguish between the two main texture groups of metamorphic rocks. Foliation refers to the mineral(s)
      a. changing types c. forming crystals
      b. becoming more mafic d. crystals aligning in parallel layers.
    4. Which of these is NOT an agent (force) of metamorphism.
      a. heat c. pressure
      b. lithification d. chemically-active fluids