Ionic Bonding Notes Scaffold
- Valence Electrons
These atoms now have an overall charge that is indicated with a positive or negative superscript number just behind the element or compound symbol. Examples:
- Cl –
- O2 –
- (OH) – __________________ ion
- (CO3)2 – __________________ ion
- __________________ – sulfate ion
- (HCO3) – bicarbonate ion
- (NH4)+ __________________ ion
- __________________ – nitrate ion
- Ionization Energy
Atoms with few valence electrons tend to lose electrons rather than gain more. Examples: most metals.
- Electron Affinity
Atoms with many valence electrons tend to gain electrons rather than lose them since they often have high electron affinity and high ionization energy. Examples: most nonmetals.
- e – Donators
Atoms such as sodium donate an electron and their ions have a net charge of +1. Na1+ has one less electron than it has protons. Its outer shell has 8 e- and is considered full.
- e – Acceptors
Atoms such as fluorine accept an electron and their ions have a net charge of -1. F1- has one more electron than it has protons. Its outer shell has 8 e- and is full.
- Ionic Bonds
These compounds are held together by the strong attraction of their opposite charges that their ions have. Ionic compounds tend to: