Covalent Bonding Notes

  1. Atoms that share electrons form covalent bonds. These atoms 'fill' their outer shells with shared electrons.
  2. Common covalent compounds are H2O,    O2,     glucose (C6H12O6).
  3. The bond order is the number of e- pairs shared between two atoms.
  4. A single bond shares one e- pair (two e-'s). The bond between H and O in H2O is a single bond.
  5. A double bond shares two e- pairs.
  6. A triple bond shares three e- pairs. N2 is a triple bond.
  7. The more shared e- (higher bond order) the harder it is to break apart the bond.
  8. Diatomic molecules form when two identical atoms combine with covalent bonds. Examples: O2, N2, H2
  9. Polar molecules are covalent compounds whose molecules have a positive charge at one end and a negative charge at the other. Water (H2O) is a polar molecule.
  10. Usually we don't use Lewis Diagrams to show covalent bonding:
     covalent bonds
  11. Structural formulas are used instead. Each bond line represents a pair of shared electrons:
    • H–H
    • O=O
    • N≡N
    • O=C=O
    •     H
          |             O 
      H - C - H        / \              
          |           H   H
          H
      

Additional Info