Organic Chemistry Notes
- Atom - Tiniest particle of an element that has all the properties of the element.
- Element - Simplest pure substance, composed of just one kind of atom.
- Molecule - Two or more atoms chemically bound. Example: CO, O2.
- Compound - Two or more elements chemically bound. Example: CO, C6H12O6.
- Organic compounds are carbon based.
- Common elements in organic compounds: C, H, O, N, S, P.
- These are molecules composed of several distinct, different molecules. Examples:
- Carbon has little tendency to lose or gain e-.
- Carbon typically forms covalent bonds of 4 e- pairs.
- Each bond can be an intersection point for other groups of compounds.
- Organic compounds form from chains of C.
- Chains can be straight, branched or closed rings.
- The e- configuration constrains the 3D shapes molecules can take.
- There can be variations in these configurations.
- Early chemists had great difficulty synthesizing the complex organic compounds.
- Vitalism - 19th century belief that organic compounds (arising from living organisms) must have some spiritual energy beyond physical laws.
- German chemist in 1828 heated an "inorganic" ammonium cyanate and created an "organic" compound, urea.
- This started the process discrediting vitalism.