Functional groups are groups of atoms most often involved with chem reactions.
Functional groups give the overall molecule its distinctive properties.
- Hydroxyl -OH
- Called alcohols
- Polar group that help alcohols dissolve in water.
- Carbonyl -CO
- If group at end of C chain called aldehydes
- If group in middle called ketones
- Carboxyl -COOH
- Forms a weak organic acid
- Called carboxylic acids
- Amino -NH2
- Building blocks for proteins!
- Forms a base
- Called amines
- Sulfhydral -SH
- Helps form shapes of proteins
- Called thiols
- These bonds are the energy currency of cells!
- Called organic phosphates
- Hydrocarbons are carbon and hydrogen compounds (simplest organic compounds).
- For a given molecular formula (C4H10), variations in structure can exist.
- These variations are called isomers.