Modeling Organic Molecules List

Directions: In your journal record the following data and your sketches of these organic molecules.

Continuous Chain

  1. Name: Methane
  2. Molecular Formula: CH4
  3. Structural Formula:
        H
        |
    H - C - H
        |
        H
    
  4. Sketch of ball and stick model

  1. Name: Ethane
  2. Molecular Formula: C2H6
  3. Structural Formula
        H   H
        |   |
    H - C - C - H
        |   |
        H   H
    
  4. Sketch of ball and stick model

  1. Name: Propane
  2. Molecular Formula: C3H8
  3. Structural Formula
        H   H   H
        |   |   |
    H - C - C - C - H
        |   |   |
        H   H   H
    
  4. Sketch of ball and stick model

  1. Name: Butane
  2. Molecular Formula: C4H10
  3. Structural Formula
        H   H   H   H
        |   |   |   |
    H - C - C - C - C - H
        |   |   |   |
        H   H   H   H
    
  4. Sketch of ball and stick model

Alcohols

  1. Name: Ethane
  2. Molecular Formula: C2H6
  3. Structural Formula
        H   H
        |   |
    H - C - C - H
        |   |
        H   H
    
  4. Sketch of ball and stick model

  1. Name: Ethanol
  2. Molecular Formula: C2H6O
  3. Structural Formula
        H   H
        |   |
    H - C - C - O - H
        |   |
        H   H
    
  4. Sketch of ball and stick model

  1. Name: Propanol
  2. Molecular Formula: C3H8O
  3. Structural Formula:
        H   H   H
        |   |   |
    H - C - C - C - O - H
        |   |   |
        H   H   H
    
  4. Sketch of ball and stick model

  1. Name: Isopropanol
  2. Molecular Formula: C3H8O
  3. Structural Formula
        H   H   H
        |   |   |
    H - C - C - C - H
        |   |   |
        H   O   H
            |
            H
    
  4. Sketch of ball and stick model

Branched Chains and Isomers

  1. Name: Butane
  2. Molecular Formula: C4H10
  3. Structural Formula
        H   H   H   H
        |   |   |   |
    H - C - C - C - C - H
        |   |   |   |
        H   H   H   H
    
  4. Sketch of ball and stick model

  1. Name: Isobutane
  2. Molecular Formula: C4H10
  3. Structural Formula
        H   H   H
        |   |   |
    H - C - C - C - H
        |   |   |
        H   |   H
            |
        H - C - H
            |
            H
    
  4. Sketch of ball and stick model

Multiple Bonds

  1. Name: Propylene
  2. Molecular Formula: C3H6
  3. Structural Formula
        H   H   H
        |   |   |
    H - C - C = C - H
        |
        H
    
  4. Sketch of ball and stick model

  1. Name: Acetylene
  2. Molecular Formula: C2H2
  3. Structural Formula
           _
     H - C — C - H
           ¯
    

    Sketch of ball and stick model

Substituent and Functional Groups

  1. Name: Methyl group
  2. Molecular Formula: CH3
  3. Structural Formula:
         H
         |
     H - C -
         |
         H
    

  1. Name: Methylene group
  2. Molecular Formula: CH2
  3. Structural Formula:
      H
      |
    - C -
      |
      H
    

  1. Name: Hydroxyl group
  2. Molecular Formula:OH
  3. Structural Formula:
    -OH
    

  1. Name: Carboxyl group
  2. Molecular Formula: COOH
  3. Structural Formula:
       O
      //
    - C
       \
        OH
    

  1. Name: Amino group
  2. Molecular Formula: NH2
  3. Structural Formula:
        H
       /
    - N
       \
        H
    

Questions

  1. Examine the continuous chain molecular formulas. Devise a formula that relates the number of carbons to hydrogens. The equation should be of the form CnHf(n). Does your formula work for octane C8H18?
  2. Ethanol is made by substituting a ________ group for a hydrogen in ethane.
  3. If a hydroxyl group is removed from propanol and a hydrogen atom substituted the resulting continuous chain molecule is called ________.
  4. Compare the shape of the propane and propylene molecules. What does the double bond do to the shape of the molecule?
  5. Structural formulas can be condensed using the groups described above. For example ethane can be written as CH3 - CH3. The single bonds between the carbon and hydrogens are understood to exist. For the following write condensed structural formulas in your journal.
    1. Propane as methyl and methylene groups.
    2. Butane as methyl and methylene groups.
    3. Ethanol as methyl, methylene and hydroxyl groups.