Modeling Organic Molecules

Directions: In your journal record the following data and your sketches of these organic molecules.

Continuous Chain

Name Molecular Formula Structural Formula
Methane CH4
                    H
                    |
                H - C - H
                    |
                    H

Sketch of ball and stick model

 
 
 
 
 
Name Molecular Formula Structural Formula
Ethane C2H6
                  H   H
                  |   |
              H - C - C - H
                  |   |
                  H   H

Sketch of ball and stick model

 
 
 
 
 
Name Molecular Formula Structural Formula
Propane C3H8
                H   H   H
                |   |   |
            H - C - C - C - H
                |   |   |
                H   H   H

Sketch of ball and stick model

 
 
 
 
 
Name Molecular Formula Structural Formula
Butane C4H10
              H   H   H   H
              |   |   |   |
          H - C - C - C - C - H
              |   |   |   |
              H   H   H   H

Sketch of ball and stick model

 
 
 
 
 

Alcohols and Isomers

Name Molecular Formula Structural Formula
Ethane C2H6
                 H   H
                 |   |
             H - C - C - H
                 |   |
                 H   H

Sketch of ball and stick model

 
 
 
 
 
Name Molecular Formula Structural Formula
Ethanol C2H6O
                H   H
                |   |
            H - C - C - O - H
                |   |
                H   H

Sketch of ball and stick model

 
 
 
 
 
Name Molecular Formula Structural Formula
Propanol C3H8O
               H   H   H
               |   |   |
           H - C - C - C - O - H
               |   |   |
               H   H   H

Sketch of ball and stick model

 
 
 
 
 
Name Molecular Formula Structural Formula
Isopropanol C3H8O
                H   H   H
                |   |   |
            H - C - C - C - H
                |   |   |
                H   O   H
                    |
                    H

Sketch of ball and stick model

 
 
 
 
 
 

Branched Chains and Isomers

Name Molecular Formula Structural Formula
Butane C4H10
              H   H   H   H
              |   |   |   |
          H - C - C - C - C - H
              |   |   |   |
              H   H   H   H

Sketch of ball and stick model

 
 
 
 
 
Name Molecular Formula Structural Formula
Isobutane C4H10
              H   H   H
              |   |   |
          H - C - C - C - H
              |   |   |
              H   |   H
                  |
              H - C - H
                  |
                  H

Sketch of ball and stick model

 
 
 
 
 

Multiple Bonds

Name Molecular Formula Structural Formula
Propylene C3H6
                       H   H   H
                       |   |   |
                   H - C - C = C - H
                       |
                       H

Sketch of ball and stick model

 
 
 
 
 
Name Molecular Formula Structural Formula
Acetylene C2H2
                     _
               H - C — C - H
                     ¯

Sketch of ball and stick model


 
 
 
 

Substituent and Functional Groups

Name Molecular Formula Structural Formula
Methylene group CH2
                       H
                       |
                     - C -
                       |
                       H
Methyl group CH3
                       H
                       |
                   H - C -
                       |
                       H
Hydroxyl group OH
                    -OH
Carboxyl group COOH
                    O
                   //
                 - C
                    \
                     OH
Amino group NH2
                     H
                    /
                 - N
                    \
                     H

Questions

  1. Examine the continuous chain molecular formulas. Devise a formula that relates the number of carbons to hydrogens. The equation should be of the form CnHf(n). Does your formula work for octane C8H18?
  2. Ethanol is made by substituting a ________ group for a hydrogen in ethane.
  3. If a hydroxyl group is removed from propanol and a hydrogen atom substituted the resulting continuous chain molecule is called ________.
  4. Compare the shape of the propane and propylene molecules. What does the double bond do to the shape of the molecule?
  5. Structural formulas can be condensed using the groups described above. For example ethane can be written as CH3 - CH3. The single bonds between the carbon and hydrogens are understood to exist. For the following write condensed structural formulas in your journal.
    1. Propane as methyl and methylene groups.
    2. Butane as methyl and methylene groups.
    3. Ethanol as methyl, methylene and hydroxyl groups.