Mitosis Vocabulary

anaphase
The third subphase of mitosis, in which the chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles of the cell.
cell cycle control system
A cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle.
cell cycle
An ordered sequence of events in the life of a eukaryotic cell, from its origin in the division of a parent cell until its own division into two; composed of the M, G1, S, and G2 phases.
cell plate
A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis.
centrosome
Material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, important during cell division; the microtubule-organizing center.
chromatin
The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing, chromatin exists as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope.
chromosome
A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.
cleavage furrow
The first sign of cleavage in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate.
cytokinesis
The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells immediately after mitosis.
interphase
The period in the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing. During interphase, cellular metabolic activity is high, chromosomes and organelles are duplicated, and cell size may increase. Interphase accounts for 90% of the cell cycle.
metaphase
The second subphase of mitosis, in which the spindle is complete and the chromosomes, attached to microtubules at their kinetochores, are all aligned at the metaphase plate.
mitosis
A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells conventionally divided into four stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Mitosis conserves chromosome number by equally allocating replicated chromosomes to each of the daughter nuclei.
mitotic phase
The phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis.
mitotic spindle
An assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis.
prophase
The first subphase of mitosis, in which the chromatin is condensing and the mitotic spindle begins to form, but the nucleolus and nucleus are still intact.
telophase
The final subphase of mitosis, in which daughter nuclei are forming and cytokinesis has typically begun.