Cells Unit Study Guide

  1. Describe cell theory and contributions of Schlieden, Schwann and Virchow.
    1. Which of these is not part of cell theory?
      a. all cells come from cells. c. all organisms are made of cells.
      b. cells are basic unit of life. d. cells have sexual reproduction.
    2. The famous French scientist who finally disproved the theory of spontaneous generation was:
      a. Pasteur. c. Spallanzani.
      b. Virchow. d. van Leeuwenhoek.
    3. Describe an example of what someone might think is the spontaneous generation of life.
  2. Understand and describe basic differences of the generally accepted three domains of cellular life and the six kingdoms.
    1. Taxonomy is the science of ______________ and _______________ organisms.
    2. Which of these is not one of the generally accepted domains of cellular life?
      a. archaea c. bacteria
      b. eukaryotes d. protists
    3. Match these kingdoms of life to their description.
      ___ Monera a. organisms of extreme environments
      ___ Fungi b. single cell prokaryotes.
      ___ Archaea c. single cell eukaryotes.
      ___ Animals c. absorptive heterotrophic multicellular eukaryotes.
      ___ Plants e. autotrophic multicellular eukaryotes.
      ___ Protista f. ingestive heterotrophic multicellular eukaryotes.
    4. Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
  3. Explain that some structures in the modern eukaryotic cell developed from early prokaryotes, such as mitochondria, and in plants, chloroplasts.
    1. Describe the endosymbiont theory and give two examples.
  4. Describe diffusion and osmosis.
    1. Compare and contrast endocytosis and exocytosis.
    2. Diffusion occurs because of :
      a. thermal motion of molecules. c. flagella.
      b. solvents. d. none of these.
    3. Osmosis can only occur when :
      a. there is a concentration gradient c. there is a differentially permeable membrane.
      b. only the solvent can move across the membrane. d. all of these are needed..
    4. Which of these is not true of facilitated diffusion :
      a. moves macromolecules c. moves against concentration gradient
      b. a process of cell membranes. d. uses membrane proteins.
  5. Describe the structure and function of cell components.
    1. "Compartmented portions of the cytoplasm, delineated by membranes" describes :
      a. ER c. nucleus
      b. organelles d. all of these
    2. The importance of organelles is that they :
      a. allow complex, sequential chemical processes to occur. c. physically separate chemically different areas of the cytoplasm.
      b. separate in time different chemical reactions. d. all of these.
    3. Which of these is not an organelle :
      a. nucleus c. ER
      b. ribosomes d. all of these are organelles
    4. DNA is contained in the:
      a. nucleum c. nucleosome
      b. nucleus d. nucleoplasm
    5. Ribosomes exit the nucleus through the _____________ ________.
    6. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is smooth because :
      a. macromolecules have sanded it. c. macromolecules are missing there.
      b. ribosomes are not embedded in it. d. of a ribosome shortage.
    7. We usually don't think of the rough endoplasmic reticulum as :
      a. making proteins. c. making lipids.
      b. being connected to the nucleus. d. making membranes.
    8. The Golgi apparatus receives transport vesicles from :
      a. Federal Express. c. UPS.
      b. the ER. d. the vacuoles.
    9. Describe the structure of the Golgi apparatus.
    10. Lysosomes are the :
      a. largest organelle. c. main organelle of plant storage.
      b. most numerous organelle. d. main organelle of digestion.
    11. One of the important functions of the peroxisomes is to ___________________________ .
    12. Single cell organisms move by means of :
      a. cilia. c. flagella.
      b. water currents. d. all of these.
    13. The movement of vesicles from the ER to the ___________ ___________ is facilitated by the cytoskeleton.
    14. Mitochondria provide ______________ for the cell.
    15. The membranes of the mitochondria create _____ compartments within it.
  6. Understand how cells act to maintain homeostasis.
    1. Describe how a freshwater protist would use a large contractile vacuole to maintain homeostasis.
    2. Why would the protist have that problem in the first place?
  7. Explain how surface area to volume ratios affect cell size.
    1. Even though it has a large surface area, why might a single very large cell either asphyxiate or starve to death?
  8. Understand importance of membranes to cell function and describe fluid mosaic model.
    1. Why do you need proteins in the phospholipid bilayer?
  9. Understand that most cells in multicellular organisms perform some special functions that others do not.
    1. Every single eukaryotic cell on the planet has in it every single cell component we have discussed.       True                   False
    2. We might expect muscle cells to have many :
      a. cilia. c. mitochondria.
      b. lysosomes. d. junction apparatus.
  10. Understand and explain that, in biological systems, structure and function must be considered together.
    1. What does that mean?