Metabolism Overview

All chemical processes in an organism.
First law of thermodynamics
Energy can not be created or destroyed. It can be transferred or transformed.
Second law of thermodynamics
Every energy transfer or transformation increases the disorder (entropy) of the universe.
Catabolic reactions
Process that release energy from the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecule. Example: hydrolysis.
Anabolic reactions
Process that consumes energy to create larger molecules from smaller ones. Example: dehydration synthesis.
Redox reactions
Chemical reactions with transfers of electrons.
Chemical reaction where electrons are added to a substance. Reduction = add.
Chemical reaction where electrons are removed from a substance. Oxidation = lose-.

Organisms are islands of order in a disordered universe.

Maintaining the order requires continual input of energy.