Meiosis and Chromosome Terminology

Chromosome
Thread-like association of DNA and proteins in a cell's nucleus.
Somatic cell
A body cell having both sets of genes (diploid).
gamete
A sex cell having one set of genes (haploid), either an egg or sperm.
Autosomes
Chromosomes of the same number and type present in both sexes.
Sex chromosomes
These carry gender information. In humans, two XX denotes a female and XY a male.
Homologous chromosomes
A pair of identical chromosomes. Human somatic cells have 23 homologous chromosomes.
Diploid
Complete set of chromosomes with a set from each parent (46 in humans).
Haploid
The number of chromosomes in a gamete, ½ of the diploid number (23 in humans).
Karyotype
Display of a diploid set of chromosomes, arranged in pairs starting with the longest pair.
Pedigree
A chart used to track heritable traits over many generations (family tree).