1. Oxygen not required. Electron carriers are regenerated by dumping H+ to pyruvate derivatives.
  2. Generates only 2 ATP - the energy stored in pyruvate is lost.
  3. Ancient metabolic process that is universal and requires no membranes.
  4. Many different carbohydrates used to recycle e- carriers. Two examples are:
  5. Alcohol fermentation
    1. Pyruvate converted to ethanol.
    2. Example: Yeast in bread, beer and wine.
  6. Lactic acid fermentation
    1. Pyruvate converted to lactate.
    2. Example: fungi and bacteria make yogurt and cheese.
    3. Example: mammals cells can switch to lactate fermentation when O2 low.
  7. Fermentation diagram (as below) .gif,   .pdf,   blank .gif,   blank .pdf
fermentation block diagram