DNA Analysis Techniques
- Enzymes that cut DNA strands at specific locations.
- Locations based upon short nucleotide sequences.
- Many restriction enzymes known.
- DNA chopped up by restriction enzymes can be reassembled with DNA ligase.
- Recombinant DNA can combine DNA from different organisms.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
- Allows many copies of a DNA sequence to be made.
- Uses special DNA polymerase from a hot-springs bacteria and temperature cycles.
- Heat separates DNA, slight cooling allows DNA polymerase to make a duplicate set of DNA.
- Repeat... 2x... 4x... 8x... 16x... 32x...
- Allows separation of macromolecules (DNA) based on length and charge of molecule.
- Chop up sample with DNA restriction enzyme.
- Place in block of gel attached to high voltage.
- Pattern changes with changes of DNA fragments.