Central Dogma Vocabulary

A double-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA.
A specialized base triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule.
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
A single-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA
deoxyribonucleic acid
(DNA) A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
DNA polymerase
An enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA at a replication fork by the addition of nucleotides to the existing chain.
double helix
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape
genetic code
The set of rules relating nucleotide sequence to amino acid sequence.
A double-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA and RNA.
messenger RNA
(mRNA) A type of RNA synthesized from DNA, that attaches to ribosomes and specifes the primary structure of proteins.
The building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
peptide bond
The covalent bond between two amino acid units, formed by a dehydration reaction.
A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. The two types are DNA and RNA.
ribonucleic acid
(RNA) A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis and as the genome of some viruses.
ribosomal RNA
(rRNA) The most abundant type of RNA, which together with proteins, forms the structure of ribosomes. Ribosomes coordinate the sequential coupling of tRNA molecules to mRNA codons.
RNA polymerase
An enzyme that links together the growing chain of ribonucleotides during transcription.
stop codon
In mRNA, one of three triplets (UAG, UAA, UGA) that signal gene translation to stop.
sugar-phosphate backbone
The alternating chain of sugar and phosphate to which the DNA and RNA nitrogenous bases are attached.
A single-ring nitrogenous base found in DNA.
The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template.
transfer RNA
(tRNA) An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA.
The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of "language" from nucleotides to amino acids.
A single-ring nitrogenous base found in RNA.