Semester Final Exam Review
|Carbohydrates||C, H, O (H:O 2:1)||monosaccharide||short term energy storage||sugar pasta|
|Lipids||C, H, O, P (H:O 3:1)||Fatty acids & glycerol||long term energy storage and cellular structure||Butter, oils, waxes|
|Proteins||C, H, O, N, S||Amino acids||Important for many cell functions (storage, movement, etc.) and the maintenance and repair of cells||Meat|
|Nucleic Acids||C, H, O, N, P||Nucleotides||stores and transmits genetic information||Meat|
- What property of water makes it unique? It's a polar molecule.
- water absorbs energy and carries it around the Earth keeping it warm
- water as a solid floats
- cohesion/adhesion allows trees/plants to get water to all parts without circulatory system.
Characteristics Of Life
- What are the six characteristics of all living things?
- Made up of 1 or more cells
- React to environment
- Makes adaptations
- Growth & development
- Requires energy
Cells: Structure & Function
- In the space below, draw a picture of an animal cell and label it.
- What is the function of each of the following organelles?
|Mitochondria — Provides energy for the cell||Chloroplast — Does photosynthesis||Nucleus — Stores genetic information|
|Lysosome — Digests macromolecules in the cell||Ribosome — Makes proteins||Vacuole — Storage for food & water|
|Golgi body (apparatus) — Modifies, stores, transports proteins in the cell||Cell wall — Protects cell & maintains shape||Cell membrane — Controls what goes in & out of the cell|
|Cytoplasm — The liquid in the cell||Endoplasmic Reticulum — Manufactures molecules like protein & lipids|
|Which organelles are found in plants? All||Which are found in animals? All but chloroplast and cell wall|
- What is the difference between a prokaryotic and a eukaryotic cell? Eukaryotic has a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, prokaryotic does not.
- All cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane.
- The membrane is selectively permeable which means that it regulates what materials can enter or exit the cell.
- The membrane is made of a phospholipid bilayer with diglycerides and transport proteins which facilitate the movement of larger or charged particles.
- Diffusion is the movement of materials across the membrane with the concentration gradient and requiring no energy.
- Passive transport is the movement of gases such as O2 and CO2 across the membrane.
- Osmosis is the movement of water across the membrane.
- When a cell is placed in a(n) isotonic solution, the cell maintains its size and shape because the water is moving into and out of the cell equally.
- When a cell is placed in a(n) hypertonic solution, the cell shrinks because the water is moving out of the cell causing it to be dehydrated.
- When a cell is placed in a(n) hypotonic solution, the cell swells up because the water is moving into the cell. Sometimes this can cause the cell to burst.
- When the cell needs to move against the concentration gradient , or from low concentration to high concentration, it must use active transport & a protein .
- An organism that can regulate the amount of water that enters or leaves its cells is called a(n) osmoregulator and requires more energy.
- If you put a freshwater snail into a saltwater tank, what will happen? See # 11
Cellular Energy: Photosynthesis & Respiration
- In the space below, draw the circle of life showing how autotrophs and heterotrophs are interdependent.
- What are the reactants of photosynthesis? CO2, H2O, light energy
- What are the products of photosynthesis? Glucose, Oxygen
- What are the reactants of cellular respiration? Glucose, Oxygen
- What are the products of cellular respiration? CO2, H2O, ATP
- Which processes (photosynthesis and/or cellular respiration) do autotrophs do? Heterotrophs?
Autotrophs: Photosynthesis AND cellular respiration Heterotrophs: Cell respiration
- When something is burned in a combustion reaction (like Cheetos) the elements in the fuel (a carbon containing compound) are rearranged with the O2 in the surrounding air to form CO2, H2O, and energy (usually heat and light). Explain how this is similar to the process of cellular respiration. Glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water