Climate - Insolation

Insolation is incoming solar radiation.


  1. The average amount of solar energy striking = 1000 watts / m2 at the equator.
  2. This energy is absorbed by the planet and released as longer wavelength energy.
  3. The energy gained from the sun = energy lost (or stored).
  4. Between about 30 N° and 30 S° latitude more energy is absorbed than re-radiated (net gain).
  5. Above 30 N° and below 30 S° latitude more energy is re-radiated than is absorbed (net loss).
  6. Ocean and wind currents re-distribute the sun's energy.


  1. At aphelion (early July) the Earth is 152.1 Million km from the Sun.
  2. At perihelion (early Jan) the Earth is 147.1 Million km from the Sun. Source:
  3. Earth's radius is 6378 km. or .004% of the AU.

Processes of Energy Transfer

Emission of energy in form of electromagnetic radiation. Examples include radio waves, light waves, and x-rays.
Energy movement between two objects in direct contact.
Heat energy moved by a carrier such as air.